VW emissions scandal: VW admits 800,000 cars have false CO2 and also also also mpg certification

Saturday, October 22nd, 2016 - autos, cars, motoring, news

Source : VW emissions scandal: VW admits 800,000 cars have false CO2 and also also also mpg certification

VW says latest revelation could cost £1.4bn; petrol-engined cars also affected

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The Volkswagen Group has been plunged into further crisis after admitting in which up to 800,000 petrol and also also also diesel-powered cars have had their CO2 and also also also mpg ratings wrongly certified.

In a statement, VW revealed: “Under the ongoing review of all processes and also also also workflows in connection with diesel engines the idea was established in which the CO2 levels and also also also therefore the fuel consumption figures for some types were set too low during the CO2 certification process. The majority of the vehicles concerned have diesel engines.”

the idea did not provide further details of which types or engines are affected, although pledged to “immediately start a dialoge with the responsible type approval agencies regarding the consequences of these findings”. The statement also described the situation as a “not yet fully explained issue”.

The company said the idea has set aside two billion euros (£1.4bn) to cover the cost of This specific latest revelation, although the idea cautioned in which the idea would certainly need to consult officials before fully understanding the legal and also also also econimic implications of the discovery.

from the statement, Matthias Müller, CEO of Volkswagen, said: “through the very start I have pushed hard for the relentless and also also also comprehensive clarification of events. We will stop at nothing and also also also nobody. This specific can be a painful process, although the idea can be our only alternative. For us, the only thing in which counts can be the truth. in which can be the basis for the fundamental realignment in which Volkswagen needs. The Board of Management of Volkswagen AG deeply regrets This specific situation and also also also wishes to underscore its determination to systematically continue along the present path of clarification and also also also transparency.”

the idea can be not clear which brands are affected by the latest revelation, although the statement was made by the VW Group, which includes VW, Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Seat and also also also Skoda.

The VW statement also stressed in which the safety of the vehicles affected can be in no way compromised.

Meanwhile, the Supervisory Board of the VW Group issues a separate statement expressing alarm at the latest discovery. the idea said: “The Supervisory Board can be deeply concerned by the discovery of irregularities found when determining CO2 levels for the type approval of Volkswagen Group vehicles. The Supervisory Board and also also also the special committee set up for the purpose of clarification will meet from the very near future to consult on further measures and also also also consequences. The Supervisory Board will continue to ensure swift and also also also meticulous clarification. In This specific regard, the latest findings must be an incentive for the Supervisory Board and also also also the Board of Management to do their utmost to resolve such irregularities and also also also rebuild trust.”

EPA allges 3.0-litre V6 diesels also cheated system

The latest admission through VW came just a day after America’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed the idea has found more evidence of the Volkswagen Group running an illegal defeat device on its 3.0-litre diesel engines, saying the scandal has currently widened to affect Porsche.

The EPA alleges in which VW installed software designed to defeat emissions tests on vehicles with 3.0-litre, six-cylinder diesel engines in which were on sale through 2013 to date, and also also also says NoX emissions on the affected vehicles are up to nine times legal limits. the idea has identified the VW Touareg, Porsche Cayenne and also also also Audi A6, Audi A7, Audi A8, Audi A8L and also also also Audi Q5 as being potentially affected. In total, 10,000 cars from the US have been implicated.

“VW has Again failed its obligation to comply with the law in which protects clean air for all Americans,” said Cynthia Giles, assistant administrator for the Office for EPA’s Enforcement and also also also Compliance Assurance.

“All companies should be playing by the same rules. EPA, with our state, and also also also federal partners, will continue to investigate these serious matters, to secure the benefits of the Clean Air Act, ensure a level playing field for responsible businesses, and also also also to ensure consumers get the environmental performance they expect.”

A statement through Porsche expressed shock at the claims. The statement read: “We are surprised to learn This specific information. Until This specific notice, all of our information was in which the Porsche Cayenne Diesel can be fully compliant. Porsche Cars North America will cooperate fully with all relevant authorities.”

A statement through the VW Group said: “The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) informed Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft on Monday in which vehicles with V6 TDI engines had a software function which had not been adequately described from the application process. Volkswagen AG wishes to emphasise in which no software has been installed from the  power units to alter emissions characteristics in a forbidden manner. Volkswagen will cooperate fully with the EPA clarify This specific matter in its entirety.”

VW’s statement suggests in which the idea believes the software can be legal, although was not correctly certified. The use of software to protect engines under prescribed circumstances can be legal – although cheating emissions tests can be forbidden.

The EPA documentation alleges in which the affected cars have “software from the electronic control module of these vehicles in which senses when the vehicle can be being tested for compliance with EPA emissions standards. When the vehicle senses in which the idea can be undergoing a federal emissions test procedure, the idea operates in a low NOx ‘temperature conditioning’ mode. Under in which mode, the vehicle meets emission standards.

“At exactly one second after the completion of the initial phases of the standard test procedure, the vehicle immediately improvements numerous operating parameters in which increase NOx emissions and also also also indicates from the software in which the idea can be transitioning to ‘normal mode’ where emissions of NOx increase up to nine times the EPA standard, depending on the vehicle and also also also type of driving conditions.

“In some other tests where the vehicle does not experience driving conditions similar to the start of the federal test procedure, the emissions are higher through the start, consistent with ‘normal mode.’”

VW EA288 engine given the all-clear

Following a previous rumour of more widespread cheating, Volkswagen was forced to issue a statement saying in which its EA288 engine does not contain the ‘defeat device’ software in which has plunged the company into crisis.

German news agency DPA had reported in which early EU5-compliant versions of the EA288 motor – a unit derived through the EA189 design in which’s been at the heart of the emissions scandal – were under scrutiny by VW engineers as they tried to establish the full extent of the problem.

VW itself issued a statement confirming in which the idea was examining the engines – although currently the idea says in which process has been completed and also also also in which “no software constituting an improper defeat device as defined in law can be installed in vehicles with EA288 engines”.

The conclusion can be an important one for the troubled German maker because the idea could have faced millions of further recalls if the EA288 engines – sold in 1.6- and also also also 2.0-litre versions across the VW Group’s range of brands – had been found to contain the code in which sparked off the emissions scandal.

VW’s statement added, “completely new vehicles of the Volkswagen Group offered within the European Union with those engines comply with legal requirements and also also also environmental standards.”

UK recall ‘won’t be mandatory’

The UK’s Department for Transport has confirmed in which the idea won’t be issuing a mandatory recall for cars affected by Volkswagen’s emissions scandal in This specific country.

Speaking to Autocar, a DfT spokesman confirmed in which the UK won’t follow the example set by the German authorities in issuing a mandatory recall for affected cars. Volkswagen has already commenced a voluntary recall program for cars in This specific country, although the DfT has made clear in which “This specific can be VW’s position and also also also VW’s problem.”

“We will continue to put pressure on VW to make sure This specific happens as quickly as possible,” said the spokesman “to ensure people from the UK can have these problems fixed.

“The government has been putting pressure on VW to address these issues quickly. The government expects VW to set up the next steps on how they are going to correct This specific problem and also also also support owners from the UK. from the past few weeks the Transport Secretary has spoken to the German Transport Minister about the actions of VW, and also also also has been reassured in which the German authorities are working closely with VW.”

In Germany, the federal transport authority, the KBA, can be forcing Volkswagen to recall the 2.4 million cars from the country which have its ‘defeat device’ software installed.

Criminal enquiry targets “fewer than 10 staff”

Criminal prosecutors in German who are investigating the dieselgate scandal have identified fewer than 10 suspects, despite earlier rumours in which up to 30 staff could be implicated. Klaus Ziehe, spokesman for the prosecutors from the German city of Brunswick, told news agency AFP in which investigators suspect “more than two although a lot fewer than 10 people”. 

VW’s UK boss faces MPs

Last month, Volkswagen UK boss Paul Willis admitted in which his company’s so-called ‘defeat device’ did affect the results of emissions tests in Europe.

Previously, the German maker has only confirmed in which the software-based emissions cheat was present on some vehicles in Europe – and also also also had not outlined whether the defeat device was active during the NEDC emissions test used across the EU.

However, when asked during a 45-minute grilling through MPs on the transport select committee if the defeat device had been used during type approval testing for the UK, Willis admitted, “the idea seems through what I understand – and also also also I’m not an engineer – in which the system of gas regulation from the engine influenced the NOx output in cars in which we sell from the UK. These cars are type approved across all of Europe, of course, and also also also they’re type approved in Germany, with separate people overlooking the idea.

“We mishandled the situation in so far as our engines behaved differently within the testing regime to the real world. in which’s why we need to fix the cars, in which’s why we need to get the customers in, and also also also in which’s why we need to put the cars right. We mishandled the situation, without a shadow of a doubt.

“the idea seems in which from the test regime the engine behaved differently to the real-world situation via software. The software affected the flow of gas to the engine which reduced the NOx.”

UK’s 1.6 diesel fix won’t need a completely new urea tank

Of the 1.2 million affected cars from the UK, Willis said 400,000 – believed to be those with the 1.6-litre variation of the EA189 diesel engine – would certainly need additional corrective work beyond a software upgrade, including completely new fuel injectors, and also also also in which This specific would certainly “take a longer period of time”.

However, he said in which the installation of exhaust after-treatments, likely to be fitted to some cars affected from the US from the form of a urea tank, would certainly not be necessary from the UK. “My understanding can be in which the addition of urea tanks can be not part of the solution in Europe,” he stated. “There’s a different technical configuration on the cars and also also also different technical regulations apply. My understanding can be in which the costs are different, too.”

The remaining 700,000-odd units – 2.0-litre diesels and also also also around 30,000 1.2-litre diesels – can be fixed by software patches alone.

While details on the technical fix Volkswagen will use to correct the affected cars remain limited, Willis said in which customers should notice no difference in fuel economy once the fix has been applied. “Our engineers are working to the brief in which there cannot be any change in miles per gallon,” he said.

Willis said VW reacted “as quickly as possible”

The session at the House of Commons was the first opportunity for the transport select committee – a cross-party Centeng made up of 11 MPs – to question VW representatives or the automobile industry on the dieselgate scandal.

Willis came under particular pressure on the amount of time taken by VW UK to remove affected vehicles – around 4000 cars still on the market – through sale. He argued in which the firm had acted as quickly as possible, saying, “On 22nd September we were made aware by VW headquarters in Wolfsburg in which there was a potential problem with diesel engines. On 28th September we were getting more details and also also also I phoned Mr McLoughlin [Patrick McLoughin, the Transport Secretary] to say to him in which as soon as I knew which vehicles were affected, I would certainly voluntarily stop selling those cars. in which phone call took place at 3pm on 28th September.

“On 30th September, at 9am from the morning, I received the VIN numbers through the various different factories. and also also also This specific can be the point: there were eight days between when we first knew the idea affected Europe and also also also when I stopped selling cars. and also also also the reason for in which can be the complexity of the number of cars involved. There are 60 different types, several different brands, three different engines and also also also two different transmissions.

“I found the VIN numbers out precisely at 9am, and also also also at 1.30pm, once I had clarified the idea with the computer systems, I stopped selling those cars voluntarily. the idea took four hours and also also also 30 minutes through the time I knew the affected cars until I took action – four hours and also also also 30 minutes.”

Existing test comes under fire through MPs

Both Willis and also also also the chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and also also also Traders, Mike Hawes, were asked if the current emissions testing procedure was fit for purpose. Hawes admitted in which the difference between real-world figures and also also also those provided by the NEDC could be “up to 30%”. “These figures are meant for a comparison process and also also also always contain a disclaimer about the real world and also also also This specific can be for some very sensible comparitive reasons,” he said.

“The test cycle dates back to the early 1980s and also also also the industry recognises the idea isn’t fit for purpose,” he added. “When you put a vehicle on the test cycle, for instance, all of the electronic devices in which you would certainly turn on from the real world – air-conditioning, heating, sat-nav, Bluetooth – all of in which has to be switched off, by law, because when the regulation was created in which sort of technology wasn’t available. Then there’s the issue of real-world driving conditions – congestion, temperature, load, gradient – all huge and also also also all ruled out by the test cycle to get a repeatable cycle.”

Hawes said he believes a more realistic testing cycle will be introduced on a compulsory basis through the beginning of 2017.

Willis also criticised the current testing procedure. He said: “If we look at the test regime on emissions, we know the idea can be old-fashioned and also also also not fit for purpose. We need completely independent tests in which look at all sorts of detail, like Euro NCAP, which uses real-world testing. We need to look at in which.”

“We have a duty to the public to reassure them [customers] in which our cars are safe. There can be no relation to safety with This specific issue although we do need to regain trust and also also also we will do in which with transparency.”

Willis also apologised to VW customers from the UK saying: “Volkswagen has significantly let down its customers and also also also the wider public. We recognise we’ve fallen short of the standards expected and also also also we will take all the necessary steps to regain trust.”

VW UK could pay back missing tax to government

Willis has promised in which the VW Group will speak to Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs to discuss any tax payments on vehicles in which may need to be made the wake of the dieselgate scandal. When asked if the firm had measures in place to compensate the Treasury for any revenues missed because of the defeat devices, Willis said, “I’m not sure there’s any clear evidence in which the CO2 emissions on these cars are different from the real world. although we can have a conversation downstream. The British taxpayer should not be out of pocket and also also also if necessary, we will have a meeting with HMRC.”

The scale of VW’s global problem

In total, VW has said in which just under 11 million vehicles worldwide contain the software ‘defeat device’ in which was exposed in American emissions tests last month. While two-thirds are thought to be fixable that has a software upgrade, the idea’s believed in which a total of 3.6 million affected VW, Audi, Skoda and also also also Seat types – those featuring the 1.6-litre variation of the EA189 turbodiesel engine – will require hardware improvements to correct the issue. US types may require the addition of a urea tank, whereas European editions of the 1.6 are likely to need completely new fuel injectors.

VW’s completely new CEO Matthias Müller has pledged in which all affected cars will be fixed by the end of next year. He added: “Our most important task will be to regain lost confidence with our customers, partners, investors and also also also the general public. The first step in This specific direction will be a fast and also also also relentless examination and also also also explanation. Only when everything comes to the table, only when things are completely explained, only then will people trust us again.

“Believe me, I too am impatient. although in This specific situation, in which we are dealing with four brands and also also also many types, care can be more important than speed.

“The technical solutions to the problems are in sight. By contrast, the business and also also also financial consequences are not yet foreseeable.”

VW, Audi, Skoda and also also also Seat launch websites for owners to check if they are affected

Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda and also also also Seat have launched websites in which allow owners to check if their car can be affected by the emissions scandal.   

The VW site collapsed soon after launch as a result of the amount of traffic trying to access the idea, although has since been functioning normally. Sites through AudiSkoda and also also also Seat are all running without problem.

Government won’t hike tax bills

The Government has confirmed in which UK taxpayers will not be hit by a higher tax bill if the idea turns out in which their cars were found to have cheated tests.

Transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin said: “The government expects VW to support owners of these vehicles already purchased from the UK and also also also we are playing our part by ensuring no one will end up with higher tax costs as a result of This specific scandal.”

He also confirmed in which the Department for Transport has pushed for more clarity on the matter and also also also in which the next round of tests will look at whether the software “can be being used elsewhere”.

“Neither cars, nor the testing facilities will be provided by the vehicle industry themselves”. VW has offered to pay with This specific testing if the government requests the idea does so.

VW’s remaining EU5 stock taken off sale from the UK

Following the scandal, Volkswagen Group UK took 4000 cars fitted with the EA189 engine off sale, pending investigations into how the idea will remove the illegal software in which cheated US emissions tests while still ensuring the cars comply with all emissions regulations.

The move covered vehicles through Audi, Seat, Skoda, Volkswagen, and also also also the cars and also also also commercial vehicles affected represent around 3% of the Group’s total UK stock. They are required to be put back on sale once the Group’s modifications have been put in place.

A spokesman stressed in which the decision to withdraw the cars through sale was a voluntary measure, rather than a regulatory one. The vehicles remained on sale beyond the September 1 deadline for Euro 6 emissions regulations to come in to effect because legislation allows manufactures to clear stock of Euro 5 engined vehicles. VW has previously confirmed all of its cars fitted with the latest, Euro 6-classified engines are fully legal.

the idea has also been announced in which anyone with an order placed for an affected car will be given the choice of withdrawing through the sale without penalty, taking delivery of the automobile after the modifications have been fitted or taking delivery of the automobile as soon as the idea can be available and also also also then having the required modifications retro-fitted.

More than 1.1m UK cars affected

The full number of cars to be recalled from the UK under VW’s voluntary scheme can be 1,189,906, and also also also This specific can be spread across several different brands from the VW Group. Volkswagen accounts for the majority, with 508,276 cars affected, while Audi has to recall 393,450 types. Skoda also includes a notable number affected, with 131,569. Seat and also also also Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles are also involved, with 76,773 and also also also 79,838 vehicles being recalled respectively.

In a statement, the firm said: “Customers with these vehicles will be kept informed over the coming weeks and also also also months. All of the Group brands affected will set up national websites to update customers on developments.”

the idea can be not yet known whether the owners of affected cars will be offered compensation. Various lobbying groups are claiming in which the potential loss of value to the cars should be reimbursed by Volkswagen.

A spokesman had previously confirmed in which VW will not rush a technical solution, preferring to focus on getting the idea right. He said: “We don’t want to be fast – we want to be certain. Over the next days and also also also weeks we will write to all affected customers and also also also we will put in place free-of-charge fixes for all affected customers.”

However, the spokesman was unable to confirm whether the revisions would certainly require the vehicles to be recertified for their emissions and also also also economy figures.

The official VW statement reads: “An internal evaluation on Friday established in which a service procedure can be required for some several million vehicles through the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand out of a total eleven million Group vehicles worldwide. These vehicles through certain types and also also also type years (such as the sixth generation Volkswagen Golf, the seventh generation Volkswagen Passat or the first generation Volkswagen Tiguan) are fitted with Type EA 189 diesel engines.”

Why did VW cheat?

A senior source within the German car industry has shed light on the most significant outstanding question of the VW emissions scandal, namely why?

If the offending cars have all the emissions equipment on board to make the automobile compliant with the regulations, why take such an enormous risk engineering from the ‘defeat device’ to bypass in which equipment?

“I expect the idea was pressure on the engineers in which made them do the idea,” said the source. “Remember This specific system was designed some time ago when emissions controls were not as sophisticated as they are currently, and also also also the pressure to pass the tests would certainly have been immense.

“and also also also I imagine the reason they installed the defeat device can be in which without the idea there would certainly have serious consequences not from the laboratory although on the road, either with the automobile’s performance, driveability, fuel consumption or some combination of the three.”

He went on to confirm in which technology has since evolved sufficiently for there to be no need for such devices today.

So why, then, did VW not simply stop using the defeat device when the idea was no longer needed? “There are two possible reasons. First the idea would certainly likely have been integrated within the entire electronic architecture of the automobile and also also also not easy to remove, second to remove the idea those responsible for its installation would certainly have first to have flagged up the fact in which they’d put the idea there, which they’d probably not be too keen to do…”

The source said he believed the defeat device was likely to be present also on VW products sold in Europe with the EA189 engine [since confirmed by a German minister] although almost certainly not active which he said, was “nothing like as bad as having active, although still illegal”.

He said also he believed in which VW alone was using such a device and also also also in which all some other German car manufacturers had no equivalent systems on the cars they sold today.

The one remaining question can be who signed off the defeat device. Former VW boss Martin Winterkorn has denied knowledge of the idea and also also also his resignation, while inevitable, was no kind of admission of guilt.

Whoever was responsible, the idea seems likely in which more heads will have to roll before the true picture emerges.

11m Audis, Seats, Skodas and also also also VWs affected globally

While the VW Group has said in which 11 million vehicles worldwide are affected by the scandal, only 5m are through Volkswagen brand itself. Audi has revealed in which 2.1 million vehicles through its brand are affected worldwide, with 1.42 million of those being in Western Europe. Skoda has also revealed in which 1.2 million of its cars worldwide are affected by the scandal. Seat has said in which 700,000 of its vehicles are affected globally. 

A VW Group statement read: “As previously announced, all completely new Volkswagen Passenger Car brand vehicles in which fulfill the EU6 norm valid throughout Europe are not affected. This specific therefore also includes the current Golf, Passat and also also also Touran types.”

The figures also include 1.8 million light commercial vehicles.

 

SMMT: just because VW cheated, the idea doesn’t mean the whole industry can be cheating

Speaking at a conference on air quality, chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and also also also Traders (SMMT) Mike Hawes said: “Consumers are right to be concerned following the events of the past ten days. although we must remember, the actions of one company do not mean collusion. Implicating some other brands or companies would certainly be unfair and also also also wrong.

“the idea would certainly be wrong to penalise all diesels. The latest diesel vehicles are the cleanest ever – effectively reducing nitrogen oxide levels by 92% compared with earlier generations. They make a significant contribution to climate change targets, an environmental challenge which cannot be ignored.

“We recognise the current regulations for testing are out of date. We want, for consumers and also also also our own industry’s integrity, a completely new emissions test in which embraces completely new technologies, and also also also which can be more representative of on the road conditions.”

VW’s global meltdown

There have been calls for governmental probes in to VW’s actions through around the earth since the firm admitted cheating from the US emissions tests, including in Canada, Germany, Italy, South Korea, UK and also also also the USA. The UK government has already announced the idea will launch an inquiry into the scandal.

VW has put aside a fund of €6.5bn (approximately £4.7bn) to cover the costs of dealing with the issue, and also also also says the idea will adjust its financial targets for 2015 as a result. The matter came to light when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and also also also the California Air Resources Board (CARB) revealed in which while testing 2.0-litre, four-cylinder diesel cars of the Volkswagen Group they detected electronic manipulations in which violate American environmental standards.

Reports have since surfaced in which Volkswagen was warned about the legality of its software as far back as 2007.

According to the EPA, This specific means in which the cars under investigation could be emitting up to 40 times the national standard for nitrogen oxide (NOx), which can be linked to asthma and also also also lung illnesses. The cars affected are 2009-2014 Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, Audi A3s, and also also also VW Passats built through 2014-15.

The issue will be investigated by the US Congress’s Oversight and also also also Investigations Subcommittee.

“Strong emissions standards are in place for the benefit of public health,” said House Energy and also also also Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton and also also also Oversight and also also also Investigations Subcommittee Chairman Tim Murphy in a joint statement.

“Manufacturers throughout the United States, and also also also across the earth, have developed leading technologies to reduce airborne emissions within the limits set by EPA and also also also state environmental agencies. However, reported EPA allegations in which certain Volkswagen types contained software to defeat auto emissions tests raise serious questions,” they said.

“We will follow the facts. We are also concerned in which auto consumers may have been deceived – in which what they were purchasing did not come as advertised. The American people deserve answers and also also also assurances in which This specific will not happen again. We intend to get those answers.”

A date for the US Congress hearing has yet to be set. Since the scandal broke the VW Group share cost has fallen by more than 50% through its 2015 high.

VW emissions scandal: how the idea unfolded

The Volkswagen emissions scandal can be currently headline news, although the story has its roots in May 2014, when a study found higher-than-clamed emissions coming through two Volkswagen vehicles. Here’s our timeline of how the story unfolded.

May 2014 The West Virginia University’s (WVU) Centre for Alternative Fuels, Engines and also also also Emissions publishes results of a study commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation in which found significantly higher-than-claimed in-use emissions through two diesel cars, a 2012 Jetta and also also also a 2013 Passat. A BMW X5 also tested passed the tests. 

WVU alerts California Air Resources Board (CARB) and also also also the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the issue.

Summer 2014 Over the course of the year following the publication of the WVU study, VW continues to assert to CARB and also also also the EPA in which the increased emissions through these vehicles could be attributed to various technical issues and also also also unexpected in-use conditions.

December 2014 VW issues a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 vehicles to address the emissions issue.

6 May 2015 CARB, in coordination with the EPA, conducts follow-up testing of these vehicles both from the laboratory and also also also during normal road operation to confirm the efficacy of VW’s recall. Testing shows the recall has had only a limited benefit.

None of the potential technical issues suggested by VW can explain the higher test results consistently confirmed during further testing by CARB.

Summer 2015 CARB and also also also the EPA make the idea clear in which they will not approve certificates of conformity – necessary for vehicles to be sold from the USA – for VW’s 2016 type year diesel vehicles until the maker car adequately explain the anomalous emissions and also also also ensure the agencies in which the 2016 type year vehicles would certainly not have similar issues.

3 September 2015 During a meeting VW admits the idea has designed and also also also installed a defeat device in these vehicles from the form of a sophisticated software algorithm in which detects when a vehicle can be undergoing emissions testing.

18 September 2015 CARB and also also also the EPA make their findings public, stating in which Volkswagen has violated two sections of the Clean Air Act, firstly by selling or offering for sale vehicles in which did not comply with their certificates of conformity, and also also also second by manufacturing and also also also installing into these vehicles an electronic control module capable of switching its calibration to beat the emissions tests.

Read more on the Volkswagen emissions scandal:

Six things the firm could cut

Bugatti under threat as boss warns of ‘painful’ cuts

Blog – navel gazing at Volkswagen

Blog – Keeping up with pollution laws can be not always easy for car makers

Blog – How Volkswagen can survive its emissions scandal

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