VW emissions scandal: fixes announced for EA189 diesel engines

Saturday, October 8th, 2016 - autos

Source : VW emissions scandal: fixes announced for EA189 diesel engines

Volkswagen details the technical fixes This specific will use to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions legislation


Volkswagen Group has detailed the technical fixes which will be used to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions standards.

The fixes, which are for the 1.6-litre in addition to 2.0-litre diesel engines, have been presented to the KBA authority in Germany to be ratified before being offered to the public. Volkswagen says the fixes rectify emissions on “the majority” of vehicles affected by the ongoing emissions scandal. In a statement, Volkswagen says “after implementation of the technical measures, the vehicles will comply with the applicable emissions standards.”

Detailing the measures which will be taken to remove the ‘defeat device’ software coming from its engines, Volkswagen revealed the following information.

EA189 1.6-litre diesel engine – VW says a fresh ‘flow transformer’, a mesh used to calm air flow around the air mass sensor, will be fitted. The sensor can be used to measure air mass throughput, in addition to helps to regulate the internal combustion process. In addition, a software update will be applied. In all, the fix should take less than one hour.

EA189 2.0-litre diesel engine – These engines will only receive a software update, which should take less than half an hour.

“Thanks to advances in engine development in addition to enhanced simulation of currents inside complex air intake systems, in combination with software optimisation geared towards This specific, This specific has been possible to produce a relatively simple in addition to customer-friendly measure,” reads VW’s statement.

“The objective for the development of the technical measures can be still to achieve the applicable emission targets in each case without any adverse effects on the engine output, fuel consumption in addition to performance. However, as all type variants first have to be measured, the achievement of these targets cannot yet be finally confirmed.”

The technical solution for the 1.2-litre EA189 engine will be presented to the KBA at the end of This specific month, VW said. The company also said its sister brands, Audi, Seat, Skoda in addition to VW Commerical Vehicles, were also planning their own corresponding measures to fix affected vehicles

VW admits 3.0-litre engines are affected

Earlier This specific month, VW admitted of which its 3.0-litre diesel engines are also affected by the widening emissions scandal – potentially affecting another 85,000 vehicles.

Officials coming from Volkswagen in addition to Audi admitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency last week of which vehicles with those engines also contained ‘auxiliary emissions control equipment’ of which was not reported to the US authorities. This specific can be understood of which This specific latest admission affects cars coming from the 2009-2016 type years.

A Volkswagen spokesperson confirmed to Autocar of which This specific latest revelation only affects cars inside the US, in addition to refers to an auxiliary emissions control device of which warms the catalyst coming from cold. The device can be designed to reduce emissions in addition to protect the engine during colder starts. The spokesperson said of which the allegation of more cheating has surfaced because VW didn’t declare the device during the vehicle homologation process. This specific’s understood of which the device has been declared illegal because This specific wasn’t registered as part of the test.

The EPA had alleged earlier This specific month of which VW’s 3.0-litre V6 engine was also cheating in emissions tests, something the company had initially denied. The EPA says of which NOx emissions on the affected vehicles are up to nine times legal limits. This specific has identified the VW TouaregPorsche Cayenne in addition to Audi A6Audi A7Audi A8, Audi A8L in addition to Audi Q5 as being potentially affected.

Speaking to Reuters, Audi spokesman Brad Stertz said of which while the auxiliary emissions control software can be ‘legal’ in Europe, Audi did not “properly notify regulators” of the device.

Sterz said: “We are willing to take another crack at reprogramming to a degree of which the regulators deem acceptable.” He also said of which the cost of rectifying the software would certainly be inside the “double digits millions of euros.”

Cynthia Giles, assistant administrator for the Office for EPA’s Enforcement in addition to Compliance Assurance, said: “VW has Again failed its obligation to comply with the law of which protects clean air for all Americans.

“All companies should be playing by the same rules. EPA, with our state, in addition to federal partners, will continue to investigate these serious matters, to secure the benefits of the Clean Air Act, ensure a level playing field for responsible businesses, in addition to to ensure consumers get the environmental performance they expect.”

The EPA documentation alleges of which the affected cars have “software inside the electronic control module of these vehicles of which senses when the vehicle can be being tested for compliance with EPA emissions standards. When the vehicle senses of which This specific can be undergoing a federal emissions test procedure, This specific operates in a low NOx ‘temperature conditioning’ mode. Under of which mode, the vehicle meets emission standards.

“At exactly one second after the completion of the initial phases of the standard test procedure, the vehicle immediately alterations many operating parameters of which increase NOx emissions in addition to indicates inside the software of which This specific can be transitioning to ‘normal mode’ where emissions of NOx increase up to nine times the EPA standard, depending on the vehicle in addition to type of driving conditions,” said an EPA statement.

“In different tests where the vehicle does not experience driving conditions similar to the start of the federal test procedure, the emissions are higher coming from the start, consistent with ‘normal mode.’”

VW executives could face jail sentences

Executives inside the UK could be imprisoned for up to 10 years for their part inside the emissions scandal, secretary of state for transport Patrick McLoughlin has revealed.

Responding to enquiries coming from Louise Ellman MP, who chairs the Commons’ Transport Committee, McLoughlin revealed of which the department for transport (DfT) could prosecute VW for providing “materially false” type approval information under the Road Vehicles (Approval) Regulations 2009 – an offence of which can be liable for an unlimited fine.

He added of which the Competition in addition to Markets Authority could launch action under the Consumer Protection coming from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 for unfair commercial practices, leaving VW liable for an unlimited fine or two years’ imprisonment, or both.

Finally, he added of which the Serious Fraud Office may prosecute VW for creating a gain coming from false representations, an offence under the Fraud Act 2006. This specific subject to a maximum 10 years’ imprisonment, an unlimited fine, or both.

inside the wide-ranging letter, McLoughlin also confirmed of which every different maker type approved inside the UK had at This specific point written to him confirming they have not been involved in any cheating of the testing system, in addition to he made This specific clear of which the government’s primary focus was to ensure of which buyers of affected cars were not materially affected. As such, he reported he had sought reassurances coming from VW of which cars would certainly be fixed without affecting performance by the end of 2016, in addition to made This specific clear of which VW would certainly be liable for any backdated fines.

McLoughlin added of which there are “no specific plans” to change MOT emission tests at the present time, however he admitted of which he may use the tests to monitor whether owners of affected vehicles contain the fixes put in place.

This specific has since been confirmed of which fixes for the EA189 2.0-litre engine will be approved in January/February next year before being rolled out in March. Fixes for the EA189 1.2-litre engines will be approved in April/May next year in addition to will be rolled out in June, in addition to fixes for the EA189 1.6-litre engine will be approved in July/August/September before being rolled out in October.

He also outlined further details of the UK government’s independent testing of vehicles, to verify figures. While stressing of which such tests were at an early stage, in addition to creating This specific clear VW would certainly pay for them, he added of which the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), which can be responsible for vehicle type approval, can be working closely with its French in addition to German counterparts to retest vehicles coming from a variety of different manufacturers in order to avoid a duplication of effort. He said the results would certainly be reported inside the spring.

Volkswagen could buy back affected vehicles in Europe

Volkswagen can be preparing to buy back some of the vehicles affected by CO2 irregularities in Europe, as the fallout coming from its emissions scandal continues.

According to the Financial Times, if VW’s re-testing of those affected vehicles reveals of which CO2 emissions have been understated by more than 10%, then customers will contain the opportunity to sell their cars back to VW at the current market value.

Speaking to the paper, a Volkswagen spokesman said: “We have to think of which maybe people will give the auto back. When we contain the [test] figures there could be a chance for people to say ‘I can hand back my car because you told me the wrong number’.”

A statement coming from Volkswagen says the company has identified 430,000 VW, Audi, Skoda in addition to Seat designs coming from the 2016 type year which are affected by CO2 irregularities, which form part of the 800,000 total revealed last week.

Customers affected by the CO2 irregularities can expect to receive an official letter coming from VW inside the coming weeks.

VW to offer cash incentives

Earlier This specific month, This specific emerged of which Volkswagen would certainly offer cash incentives of up to £1500 to existing UK customers as This specific tries to avert the potential sales affect caused by the emissions scandal.

Dealer correspondence leaked to Autocar shows of which in response to concerns coming from VW’s British sales network, the company can be going to top up any discounts offered to existing customers trading in a VW of any age having a further cash incentive – £400 on the Up city car, rising to £1000 on the Golf in addition to Passat, in addition to £1500 on the Touareg in addition to Sharan.

The VW advice tells dealers, “This specific Insentif can be in addition to current tactical in addition to does not impact your ability to determine the selling cost of the vehicle.” This specific adds of which the offer will last until the end of January 2016. different vehicles eligible for a £1000 incentive include Golf SV, Cabriolet in addition to Estate, Beetle in addition to Beetle Cabriolet, Scirocco, Jetta, Touran, Tiguan, CC in addition to all electric vehicles.

VW’s British sales dipped slightly in October – along with those of several of its rivals, as the official figures dropped for the very first time in 43 months. However, market analysts suggest of which a large number of potential buyers are delaying their purchase – in addition to VW’s loyalty Insentif can be clearly designed to negate of which issue. This specific mirrors a scheme introduced inside the United States, where existing customers can get up to $1500 off selected designs.

A VW UK spokesman said, “Any maker scheme can be designed to react to trends inside the market, in addition to you could say This specific does the same. We think This specific can be an attractive offer for existing owners.”

German emissions investigators target 23 different manufacturers

German automotive industry regulator Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) has announced This specific can be conducting independent emissions tests on cars in addition to vans made by 23 different marques.

In a statement, the KBA said the tests were being conducted as a result of the Volkswagen emissions scandal, however also suggested of which accusations of cheating elsewhere inside the auto industry had been made. This specific cited “verified indications coming from third parties regarding unusual pollutants emissions“.

“Since the end of September, KBA has been investigating whether further manipulation of emissions, of nitrogen oxides in particular, can be taking place inside the market,” said the statement.

This specific added of which This specific had already tested two-thirds of the vehicles named, comparing laboratory test results with real-world figures, however did not give any clues as to the results.

All of the KBA’s tests are believed to be focused on diesel engines.

Alfa Romeo: Alfa Romeo GuiliettaAudi: Audi A6, Audi A3BMW: BMW 3 Series, BMW 5 SeriesChevrolet: Chevrolet CruzeDacia: SD engineFiat: Fiat Panda, Fiat DucatoFord: Ford Focus, Ford C-MaxHonda: Honda HR-VHyundai: Hyundai iX35, Hyundai i20Land Rover: Range Rover EvoqueJeep: Jeep CherokeeMazda: Mazda 6Mercedes: Mercedes C-Class, Mercedes CLS, Mercedes Sprinter, Mercedes V-ClassMini: Mini CooperMitsubishi: Mitsubishi ASXNissan: Nissan NavaraPeugeot: Peugeot 308Porsche: Porsche MacanRenault: Renault KadjarSmart: Smart FortwoToyota: Toyota AurisVauxhall: Vauxhall Astra, Vauxhall Insignia, Vauxhall ZafiraVolvo: Volvo V60VW: VW Golf, VW Beetle, VW Passat, VW Touran, VW Touareg, VW Golf Sportsvan, VW Polo, VW Crafter, VW Amarok

VW Group admits 800,000 cars may have false CO2 ratings; Porsche in addition to petrol engines implicated

In early November, the Volkswagen Group was plunged into further crisis after admitting of which up to 800,000 petrol in addition to diesel-powered cars had their CO2 in addition to mpg ratings wrongly certified.

In a statement, VW revealed: “Under the ongoing review of all processes in addition to workflows in connection with diesel engines This specific was established of which the CO2 levels in addition to so the fuel consumption figures for some designs were set too low during the CO2 certification process. The majority of the vehicles concerned have diesel engines.”

This specific also pledged to “immediately start a dialogue with the responsible type approval agencies regarding the consequences of these findings”. The statement also described the situation as a “not yet fully explained issue”.

A VW spokesman confirmed of which the latest scandal affects AudiSeatSkoda in addition to VW cars with what are described as “tiny” engines. Reports suggest of which cars powered by the 1.4-litre four-cylinder petrol engine with Cylinder On Demand technology are affected. Further reports suggest of which VW BlueMotion diesel designs with three in addition to four-cylinder diesel engines are also affected.

The company said This specific has set aside two billion euros (£1.4bn) to cover the cost of This specific latest revelation, although This specific cautioned of which This specific would certainly need to consult officials before fully understanding the legal in addition to econimic implications of the discovery. This specific has not said whether This specific will compensate owners of affected cars.

inside the statement, Matthias Müller, CEO of Volkswagen, said: “coming from the very start I have pushed hard for the relentless in addition to comprehensive clarification of events. We will stop at nothing in addition to nobody. This specific can be a painful process, however This specific can be our only alternative. For us, the only thing of which counts can be the truth. of which can be the basis for the fundamental realignment of which Volkswagen needs. The Board of Management of Volkswagen AG deeply regrets This specific situation in addition to wishes to underscore its determination to systematically continue along the present path of clarification in addition to transparency.”

The VW statement also stressed of which the safety of the vehicles affected can be in no way compromised.

Meanwhile, the Supervisory Board of the VW Group issues a separate statement expressing alarm at the latest discovery. This specific said: “The Supervisory Board can be deeply concerned by the discovery of irregularities found when determining CO2 levels for the type approval of Volkswagen Group vehicles. The Supervisory Board in addition to the special committee set up for the purpose of clarification will meet inside the very near future to consult on further measures in addition to consequences. The Supervisory Board will continue to ensure swift in addition to meticulous clarification. In This specific regard, the latest findings must be an incentive for the Supervisory Board in addition to the Board of Management to do their utmost to resolve such irregularities in addition to rebuild trust.”

VW EA288 engine given the all-clear

Following a previous rumour of more widespread cheating, Volkswagen was forced to issue a statement saying of which its EA288 engine does not contain the ‘defeat device’ software of which has plunged the company into crisis.

German news agency DPA had reported of which early EU5-compliant versions of the EA288 motor – a unit derived coming from the EA189 design of which’s been at the heart of the emissions scandal – were under scrutiny by VW engineers as they tried to establish the full extent of the problem.

VW itself issued a statement confirming of which This specific was examining the engines – however at This specific point This specific says of which process has been completed in addition to of which “no software constituting an improper defeat device as defined in law can be installed in vehicles with EA288 engines”.

The conclusion can be an important one for the troubled German maker because This specific could have faced millions of further recalls if the EA288 engines – sold in 1.6- in addition to 2.0-litre versions across the VW Group’s range of brands – had been found to contain the code of which sparked off the emissions scandal.

VW’s statement added, “fresh vehicles of the Volkswagen Group offered within the European Union with those engines comply with legal requirements in addition to environmental standards.”

UK recall ‘won’t be mandatory’

The UK’s Department for Transport has confirmed of which This specific won’t be issuing a mandatory recall for cars affected by Volkswagen’s emissions scandal in This specific country.

Speaking to Autocar, a DfT spokesman confirmed of which the UK won’t follow the example set by the German authorities in issuing a mandatory recall for affected cars. Volkswagen has already started off a voluntary recall program for cars in This specific country, however the DfT has made clear of which “This specific can be VW’s position in addition to VW’s problem.”

“We will continue to put pressure on VW to make sure This specific happens as quickly as possible,” said the spokesman “creating sure of which people inside the UK can have these problems fixed.

“The government has been putting pressure on VW to address these issues quickly. The government expects VW to set up the next steps on how they are going to correct This specific problem in addition to support owners inside the UK. inside the past few weeks the Transport Secretary has spoken to the German Transport Minister about the actions of VW, in addition to has been reassured of which the German authorities are working closely with VW.”

In Germany, the federal transport authority, the KBA, can be forcing Volkswagen to recall the 2.4 million cars inside the country which have its ‘defeat device’ software installed.

Criminal enquiry targets “fewer than 10 staff”

Criminal prosecutors in German who are investigating the dieselgate scandal have identified fewer than 10 suspects, despite earlier rumours of which up to 30 staff could be implicated. Klaus Ziehe, spokesman for the prosecutors inside the German city of Brunswick, told news agency AFP of which investigators suspect “more than two however a lot fewer than 10 people”. 

VW’s UK boss faces MPs

Last month, Volkswagen UK boss Paul Willis admitted of which his company’s so-called ‘defeat device’ did affect the results of emissions tests in Europe.

Previously, the German maker has only confirmed of which the software-based emissions cheat was present on some vehicles in Europe – in addition to had not outlined whether the defeat device was active during the NEDC emissions test used across the EU.

However, when asked during a 45-minute grilling coming from MPs on the transport select committee if the defeat device had been used during type approval testing for the UK, Willis admitted, “This specific seems coming from what I understand – in addition to I’m not an engineer – of which the system of gas regulation inside the engine influenced the NOx output in cars of which we sell inside the UK. These cars are type approved across all of Europe, of course, in addition to they’re type approved in Germany, with separate people overlooking This specific.

“We mishandled the situation in so far as our engines behaved differently within the testing regime to the real world. of which’s why we need to fix the cars, of which’s why we need to get the customers in, in addition to of which’s why we need to put the cars right. We mishandled the situation, without a shadow of a doubt.

“This specific seems of which inside the test regime the engine behaved differently to the real-world situation via software. The software affected the flow of gas to the engine which reduced the NOx.”

Willis said VW reacted “as quickly as possible”

The session at the House of Commons was the first opportunity for the transport select committee – a cross-party Centeng made up of 11 MPs – to question VW representatives or the auto industry on the dieselgate scandal.

Willis came under particular pressure on the amount of time taken by VW UK to remove affected vehicles – around 4000 cars still on the market – coming from sale. He argued of which the firm had acted as quickly as possible, saying, “On 22nd September we were made aware by VW headquarters in Wolfsburg of which there was a potential problem with diesel engines. On 28th September we were getting more details in addition to I phoned Mr McLoughlin [Patrick McLoughin, the Transport Secretary] to say to him of which as soon as I knew which vehicles were affected, I would certainly voluntarily stop selling those cars. of which phone call took place at 3pm on 28th September.

“On 30th September, at 9am inside the morning, I received the VIN numbers coming from the various different factories. in addition to This specific can be the point: there were eight days between when we first knew This specific affected Europe in addition to when I stopped selling cars. in addition to the reason for of which can be the complexity of the number of cars involved. There are 60 different designs, 5 different brands, three different engines in addition to two different transmissions.

“I found the VIN numbers out precisely at 9am, in addition to at 1.30pm, once I had clarified This specific with the computer systems, I stopped selling those cars voluntarily. This specific took four hours in addition to 30 minutes coming from the time I knew the affected cars until I took action – four hours in addition to 30 minutes.”

Existing test comes under fire coming from MPs

Both Willis in addition to the chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers in addition to Traders, Mike Hawes, were asked if the current emissions testing procedure was fit for purpose. Hawes admitted of which the difference between real-world figures in addition to those provided by the NEDC could be “up to 30%”. “These figures are meant for a comparison process in addition to always contain a disclaimer about the real world in addition to This specific can be for some very sensible comparitive reasons,” he said.

“The test cycle dates back to the early 1980s in addition to the industry recognises This specific isn’t fit for purpose,” he added. “When you put a vehicle on the test cycle, for instance, all of the electronic devices of which you would certainly turn on inside the real world – air-conditioning, heating, sat-nav, Bluetooth – all of of which has to be switched off, by law, because when the regulation was created of which sort of technology wasn’t available. Then there’s the issue of real-world driving conditions – congestion, temperature, load, gradient – all huge in addition to all ruled out by the test cycle to get a repeatable cycle.”

Hawes said he believes a more realistic testing cycle will be introduced on a compulsory basis coming from the beginning of 2017.

Willis also criticised the current testing procedure. He said: “If we look at the test regime on emissions, we know This specific can be old-fashioned in addition to not fit for purpose. We need completely independent tests of which look at all sorts of detail, like Euro NCAP, which uses real-world testing. We need to look at of which.”

“We have a duty to the public to reassure them [customers] of which our cars are safe. There can be no relation to safety with This specific issue however we do need to regain trust in addition to we will do of which with transparency.”

Willis also apologised to VW customers inside the UK saying: “Volkswagen has significantly let down its customers in addition to the wider public. We recognise we’ve fallen short of the standards expected in addition to we will take all the necessary steps to regain trust.”

VW UK could pay back missing tax to government

Willis has promised of which the VW Group will speak to Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs to discuss any tax payments on vehicles of which may need to be made the wake of the dieselgate scandal. When asked if the firm had measures in place to compensate the Treasury for any revenues missed because of the defeat devices, Willis said, “I’m not sure there’s any clear evidence of which the CO2 emissions on these cars are different inside the real world. however we can have a conversation downstream. The British taxpayer should not be out of pocket in addition to if necessary, we will have a meeting with HMRC.”

The scale of VW’s global problem

In total, VW has said of which just under 11 million vehicles worldwide contain the software ‘defeat device’ of which was exposed in American emissions tests last month. While two-thirds are thought to be fixable having a software upgrade, This specific’s believed of which a total of 3.6 million affected VW, Audi, Skoda in addition to Seat designs – those featuring the 1.6-litre edition of the EA189 turbodiesel engine – will require hardware alterations to correct the issue. US designs may require the addition of a urea tank, whereas European editions of the 1.6 are likely to need fresh fuel injectors.

VW’s fresh CEO Matthias Müller has pledged of which all affected cars will be fixed by the end of next year. He added: “Our most important task will be to regain lost confidence with our customers, partners, investors in addition to the general public. The first step in This specific direction will be a fast in addition to relentless examination in addition to explanation. Only when everything comes to the table, only when things are completely explained, only then will people trust us again.

“Believe me, I too am impatient. however in This specific situation, in which we are dealing with four brands in addition to many designs, care can be more important than speed.

“The technical solutions to the problems are in sight. By contrast, the business in addition to financial consequences are not yet foreseeable.”

VW, Audi, Skoda in addition to Seat launch websites for owners to check if they are affected

Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda in addition to Seat have launched websites of which allow owners to check if their car can be affected by the emissions scandal.   

The VW site collapsed soon after launch as a result of the amount of traffic trying to access This specific, however has since been functioning normally. Sites coming from AudiSkoda in addition to Seat are all running without problem.

Government won’t hike tax bills

The Government has confirmed of which UK taxpayers will not be hit by a higher tax bill if This specific turns out of which their cars were found to have cheated tests.

Transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin said: “The government expects VW to support owners of these vehicles already purchased inside the UK in addition to we are playing our part by ensuring no one will end up with higher tax costs as a result of This specific scandal.”

He also confirmed of which the Department for Transport has pushed for more clarity on the matter in addition to of which the next round of tests will look at whether the software “can be being used elsewhere”.

“Neither cars, nor the testing facilities will be provided by the vehicle industry themselves”. VW has offered to pay because of This specific testing if the government requests This specific does so.

VW’s remaining EU5 stock taken off sale inside the UK

Following the scandal, Volkswagen Group UK took 4000 cars fitted with the EA189 engine off sale, pending investigations into how This specific will remove the illegal software of which cheated US emissions tests while still ensuring the cars comply with all emissions regulations.

The move covered vehicles coming from Audi, Seat, Skoda, Volkswagen, in addition to the cars in addition to commercial vehicles affected represent around 3% of the Group’s total UK stock. They are supposed to be put back on sale once the Group’s modifications have been put in place.

A spokesman stressed of which the decision to withdraw the cars coming from sale was a voluntary measure, rather than a regulatory one. The vehicles remained on sale beyond the September 1 deadline for Euro 6 emissions regulations to come in to effect because legislation allows manufactures to clear stock of Euro 5 engined vehicles. VW has previously confirmed all of its cars fitted with the latest, Euro 6-classified engines are fully legal.

This specific has also been announced of which anyone with an order placed for an affected car will be given the choice of withdrawing coming from the sale without penalty, taking delivery of the auto after the modifications have been fitted or taking delivery of the auto as soon as This specific can be available in addition to then having the required modifications retro-fitted.

More than 1.1m UK cars affected

The full number of cars to be recalled inside the UK under VW’s voluntary scheme can be 1,189,906, in addition to This specific can be spread across 5 different brands inside the VW Group. Volkswagen accounts for the majority, with 508,276 cars affected, while Audi has to recall 393,450 designs. Skoda also incorporates a notable number affected, with 131,569. Seat in addition to Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles are also involved, with 76,773 in addition to 79,838 vehicles being recalled respectively.

In a statement, the firm said: “Customers with these vehicles will be kept informed over the coming weeks in addition to months. All of the Group brands affected will set up national websites to update customers on developments.”

This specific can be not yet known whether the owners of affected cars will be offered compensation. Various lobbying groups are claiming of which the potential loss of value to the cars should be reimbursed by Volkswagen.

A spokesman had previously confirmed of which VW will not rush a technical solution, preferring to focus on getting This specific right. He said: “We don’t want to be fast – we want to be certain. Over the next days in addition to weeks we will write to all affected customers in addition to we will put in place free-of-charge fixes for all affected customers.”

However, the spokesman was unable to confirm whether the revisions would certainly require the vehicles to be recertified for their emissions in addition to economy figures.

The official VW statement reads: “An internal evaluation on Friday established of which a service procedure can be required for some 5 million vehicles coming from the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand out of a total eleven million Group vehicles worldwide. These vehicles coming from certain designs in addition to type years (such as the sixth generation Volkswagen Golf, the seventh generation Volkswagen Passat or the first generation Volkswagen Tiguan) are fitted with Type EA 189 diesel engines.”

Why did VW cheat?

A senior source within the German car industry has shed light on the most significant outstanding question of the VW emissions scandal, namely why?

If the offending cars have all the emissions equipment on board to make the auto compliant with the regulations, why take such an enormous risk engineering inside the ‘defeat device’ to bypass of which equipment?

“I expect This specific was pressure on the engineers of which made them do This specific,” said the source. “Remember This specific system was designed some time ago when emissions controls were not as sophisticated as they are at This specific point, in addition to the pressure to pass the tests would certainly have been immense.

“in addition to I imagine the reason they installed the defeat device can be of which without This specific there would certainly have serious consequences not inside the laboratory however on the road, either with the auto’s performance, driveability, fuel consumption or some combination of the three.”

He went on to confirm of which technology has since evolved sufficiently for there to be no need for such devices today.

So why, then, did VW not simply stop using the defeat device when This specific was no longer needed? “There are two possible reasons. First This specific would certainly likely have been integrated within the entire electronic architecture of the auto in addition to not easy to remove, second to remove This specific those responsible for its installation would certainly have first to have flagged up the fact of which they’d put This specific there, which they’d probably not be too keen to do…”

The source said he believed the defeat device was likely to be present also on VW products sold in Europe with the EA189 engine [since confirmed by a German minister] however almost certainly not active which he said, was “nothing like as bad as having active, however still illegal”.

He said also he believed of which VW alone was using such a device in addition to of which all different German car manufacturers had no equivalent systems on the cars they sold today.

The one remaining question can be who signed off the defeat device. Former VW boss Martin Winterkorn has denied knowledge of This specific in addition to his resignation, while inevitable, was no kind of admission of guilt.

Whoever was responsible, This specific seems likely of which more heads will have to roll before the true picture emerges.

11m Audis, Seats, Skodas in addition to VWs affected globally

While the VW Group has said of which 11 million vehicles worldwide are affected by the scandal, only 5m are coming from Volkswagen brand itself. Audi has revealed of which 2.1 million vehicles coming from its brand are affected worldwide, with 1.42 million of those being in Western Europe. Skoda has also revealed of which 1.2 million of its cars worldwide are affected by the scandal. Seat has said of which 700,000 of its vehicles are affected globally. 

A VW Group statement read: “As previously announced, all fresh Volkswagen Passenger Car brand vehicles of which fulfill the EU6 norm valid throughout Europe are not affected. This specific therefore also includes the current Golf, Passat in addition to Touran designs.”

The figures also include 1.8 million light commercial vehicles.

SMMT: just because VW cheated, This specific doesn’t mean the whole industry can be cheating

Speaking at a conference on air quality, chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers in addition to Traders (SMMT) Mike Hawes said: “Consumers are right to be concerned following the events of the past ten days. however we must remember, the actions of one company do not mean collusion. Implicating different brands or companies would certainly be unfair in addition to wrong.

“This specific would certainly be wrong to penalise all diesels. The latest diesel vehicles are the cleanest ever – effectively reducing nitrogen oxide levels by 92% compared with earlier generations. They make a significant contribution to climate change targets, an environmental challenge which cannot be ignored.

“We recognise the current regulations for testing are out of date. We want, for consumers in addition to our own industry’s integrity, a fresh emissions test of which embraces fresh technologies, in addition to which can be more representative of on the road conditions.”

VW’s global meltdown

There have been calls for governmental probes in to VW’s actions coming from around the entire world since the firm admitted cheating inside the US emissions tests, including in Canada, Germany, Italy, South Korea, UK in addition to the USA. The UK government has already announced This specific will launch an inquiry into the scandal.

VW has put aside a fund of €6.5bn (approximately £4.7bn) to cover the costs of dealing with the issue, in addition to says This specific will adjust its financial targets for 2015 as a result. The matter came to light when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in addition to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) revealed of which while testing 2.0-litre, four-cylinder diesel cars of the Volkswagen Group they detected electronic manipulations of which violate American environmental standards.

Reports have since surfaced of which Volkswagen was warned about the legality of its software as far back as 2007.

According to the EPA, This specific means of which the cars under investigation could be emitting up to 40 times the national standard for nitrogen oxide (NOx), which can be linked to asthma in addition to lung illnesses. The cars affected are 2009-2014 Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, Audi A3s, in addition to VW Passats built coming from 2014-15.

The issue will be investigated by the US Congress’s Oversight in addition to Investigations Subcommittee.

“Strong emissions standards are in place for the benefit of public health,” said House Energy in addition to Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton in addition to Oversight in addition to Investigations Subcommittee Chairman Tim Murphy in a joint statement.

“Manufacturers throughout the United States, in addition to across the entire world, have developed leading technologies to reduce airborne emissions within the limits set by EPA in addition to state environmental agencies. However, reported EPA allegations of which certain Volkswagen designs contained software to defeat auto emissions tests raise serious questions,” they said.

“We will follow the facts. We are also concerned of which auto consumers may have been deceived – of which what they were purchasing did not come as advertised. The American people deserve answers in addition to assurances of which This specific will not happen again. We intend to get those answers.”

A date for the US Congress hearing has yet to be set. Since the scandal broke the VW Group share cost has fallen by more than 50% coming from its 2015 high.

VW emissions scandal: how This specific unfolded

The Volkswagen emissions scandal can be currently headline news, however the story has its roots in May 2014, when a study found higher-than-clamed emissions coming coming from two Volkswagen vehicles. Here’s our timeline of how the story unfolded.

May 2014 The West Virginia University’s (WVU) Centre for Alternative Fuels, Engines in addition to Emissions publishes results of a study commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation of which found significantly higher-than-claimed in-use emissions coming from two diesel cars, a 2012 Jetta in addition to a 2013 Passat. A BMW X5 also tested passed the tests. 

WVU alerts California Air Resources Board (CARB) in addition to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the issue.

Summer 2014 Over the course of the year following the publication of the WVU study, VW continues to assert to CARB in addition to the EPA of which the increased emissions coming from these vehicles could be attributed to various technical issues in addition to unexpected in-use conditions.

December 2014 VW issues a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 vehicles to address the emissions issue.

6 May 2015 CARB, in coordination with the EPA, conducts follow-up testing of these vehicles both inside the laboratory in addition to during normal road operation to confirm the efficacy of VW’s recall. Testing shows the recall has had only a limited benefit.

None of the potential technical issues suggested by VW can explain the higher test results consistently confirmed during further testing by CARB.

Summer 2015 CARB in addition to the EPA make This specific clear of which they will not approve certificates of conformity – necessary for vehicles to be sold inside the USA – for VW’s 2016 type year diesel vehicles until the maker car adequately explain the anomalous emissions in addition to ensure the agencies of which the 2016 type year vehicles would certainly not have similar issues.

3 September 2015 During a meeting VW admits This specific has designed in addition to installed a defeat device in these vehicles inside the form of a sophisticated software algorithm of which detects when a vehicle can be undergoing emissions testing.

18 September 2015 CARB in addition to the EPA make their findings public, stating of which Volkswagen has violated two sections of the Clean Air Act, firstly by selling or offering for sale vehicles of which did not comply with their certificates of conformity, in addition to second by manufacturing in addition to installing into these vehicles an electronic control module capable of switching its calibration to beat the emissions tests.

Read more on the Volkswagen emissions scandal:

Six things the firm could cut

Bugatti under threat as boss warns of ‘painful’ cuts

Blog – navel gazing at Volkswagen

Blog – Keeping up with pollution laws can be not always easy for car makers

Blog – How Volkswagen can survive its emissions scandal

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