VW emissions scandal: fixes announced for EA189 diesel engines

Saturday, October 8th, 2016 - autos

Source : VW emissions scandal: fixes announced for EA189 diesel engines

Volkswagen details the technical fixes the idea will use to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions legislation


Volkswagen Group has detailed the technical fixes which will be used to bring two of its EA189 diesel engines into line with current emissions standards.

The fixes, which are for the 1.6-litre along with also 2.0-litre diesel engines, have been presented to the KBA authority in Germany to be ratified before being offered to the public. Volkswagen says the fixes rectify emissions on “the majority” of vehicles affected by the ongoing emissions scandal. In a statement, Volkswagen says “after implementation of the technical measures, the vehicles will comply with the applicable emissions standards.”

Detailing the measures which will be taken to remove the ‘defeat device’ software via its engines, Volkswagen revealed the following information.

EA189 1.6-litre diesel engine – VW says a brand new ‘flow transformer’, a mesh used to calm air flow around the air mass sensor, will be fitted. The sensor is usually used to measure air mass throughput, along with also helps to regulate the internal combustion process. In addition, a software update will be applied. In all, the fix should take less than one hour.

EA189 2.0-litre diesel engine – These engines will only receive a software update, which should take less than half an hour.

“Thanks to advances in engine development along with also improved upon simulation of currents inside complex air intake systems, in combination with software optimisation geared towards in which, the idea has been possible to produce a relatively simple along with also customer-friendly measure,” reads VW’s statement.

“The objective for the development of the technical measures is usually still to achieve the applicable emission targets in each case without any adverse effects on the engine output, fuel consumption along with also performance. However, as all style variants first have to be measured, the achievement of these targets cannot yet be finally confirmed.”

The technical solution for the 1.2-litre EA189 engine will be presented to the KBA at the end of in which month, VW said. The company also said its sister brands, Audi, Seat, Skoda along with also VW Commerical Vehicles, were also planning their own corresponding measures to fix affected vehicles

VW admits 3.0-litre engines are affected

Earlier in which month, VW admitted in which its 3.0-litre diesel engines are also affected by the widening emissions scandal – potentially affecting another 85,000 vehicles.

Officials via Volkswagen along with also Audi admitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency last week in which vehicles with those engines also contained ‘auxiliary emissions control equipment’ in which was not reported to the US authorities. the idea is usually understood in which in which latest admission affects cars via the 2009-2016 style years.

A Volkswagen spokesperson confirmed to Autocar in which in which latest revelation only affects cars from the US, along with also refers to an auxiliary emissions control device in which warms the catalyst via cold. The device is usually designed to reduce emissions along with also protect the engine during colder starts. The spokesperson said in which the allegation of more cheating has surfaced because VW didn’t declare the device during the vehicle homologation process. the idea’s understood in which the device has been declared illegal because the idea wasn’t registered as part of the test.

The EPA had alleged earlier in which month in which VW’s 3.0-litre V6 engine was also cheating in emissions tests, something the company had initially denied. The EPA says in which NOx emissions on the affected vehicles are up to nine times legal limits. the idea has identified the VW TouaregPorsche Cayenne along with also Audi A6Audi A7Audi A8, Audi A8L along with also Audi Q5 as being potentially affected.

Speaking to Reuters, Audi spokesman Brad Stertz said in which while the auxiliary emissions control software is usually ‘legal’ in Europe, Audi did not “properly notify regulators” of the device.

Sterz said: “We are willing to take another crack at reprogramming to a degree in which the regulators deem acceptable.” He also said in which the cost of rectifying the software would likely be from the “double digits millions of euros.”

Cynthia Giles, assistant administrator for the Office for EPA’s Enforcement along with also Compliance Assurance, said: “VW has Once more failed its obligation to comply with the law in which protects clean air for all Americans.

“All companies should be playing by the same rules. EPA, with our state, along with also federal partners, will continue to investigate these serious matters, to secure the benefits of the Clean Air Act, ensure a level playing field for responsible businesses, along with also to ensure consumers get the environmental performance they expect.”

The EPA documentation alleges in which the affected cars have “software from the electronic control module of these vehicles in which senses when the vehicle is usually being tested for compliance with EPA emissions standards. When the vehicle senses in which the idea is usually undergoing a federal emissions test procedure, the idea operates in a low NOx ‘temperature conditioning’ mode. Under in which mode, the vehicle meets emission standards.

“At exactly one second after the completion of the initial phases of the standard test procedure, the vehicle immediately modifications several operating parameters in which increase NOx emissions along with also indicates from the software in which the idea is usually transitioning to ‘normal mode’ where emissions of NOx increase up to nine times the EPA standard, depending on the vehicle along with also type of driving conditions,” said an EPA statement.

“In different tests where the vehicle does not experience driving conditions similar to the start of the federal test procedure, the emissions are higher via the start, consistent with ‘normal mode.’”

VW executives could face jail sentences

Executives from the UK could be imprisoned for up to 10 years for their part from the emissions scandal, secretary of state for transport Patrick McLoughlin has revealed.

Responding to enquiries via Louise Ellman MP, who chairs the Commons’ Transport Committee, McLoughlin revealed in which the department for transport (DfT) could prosecute VW for providing “materially false” type approval information under the Road Vehicles (Approval) Regulations 2009 – an offence in which is usually liable for an unlimited fine.

He added in which the Competition along with also Markets Authority could launch action under the Consumer Protection via Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 for unfair commercial practices, leaving VW liable for an unlimited fine or two years’ imprisonment, or both.

Finally, he added in which the Serious Fraud Office may prosecute VW for doing a gain via false representations, an offence under the Fraud Act 2006. in which subject to a maximum 10 years’ imprisonment, an unlimited fine, or both.

from the wide-ranging letter, McLoughlin also confirmed in which every different supplier received a type approved from the UK had currently written to him confirming they have not been involved in any cheating of the testing system, along with also he made the idea clear in which the government’s primary focus was to ensure in which buyers of affected cars were not materially affected. As such, he reported he had sought reassurances via VW in which cars would likely be fixed without affecting performance by the end of 2016, along with also made the idea clear in which VW would likely be liable for any backdated fines.

McLoughlin added in which there are “no specific plans” to change MOT emission tests at the present time, however he admitted in which he may use the tests to monitor whether owners of affected vehicles possess the fixes put in place.

the idea has since been confirmed in which fixes for the EA189 2.0-litre engine will be approved in January/February next year before being rolled out in March. Fixes for the EA189 1.2-litre engines will be approved in April/May next year along with also will be rolled out in June, along with also fixes for the EA189 1.6-litre engine will be approved in July/August/September before being rolled out in October.

He also outlined further details of the UK government’s independent testing of vehicles, to verify figures. While stressing in which such tests were at an early stage, along with also doing the idea clear VW would likely pay for them, he added in which the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA), which is usually responsible for vehicle type approval, is usually working closely with its French along with also German counterparts to retest vehicles via a variety of different manufacturers in order to avoid a duplication of effort. He said the results would likely be reported from the spring.

Volkswagen could buy back affected vehicles in Europe

Volkswagen is usually preparing to buy back some of the vehicles affected by CO2 irregularities in Europe, as the fallout via its emissions scandal continues.

According to the Financial Times, if VW’s re-testing of those affected vehicles reveals in which CO2 emissions have been understated by more than 10%, then customers will possess the opportunity to sell their cars back to VW at the current market value.

Speaking to the paper, a Volkswagen spokesman said: “We have to think in which maybe people will give the auto back. When we possess the [test] figures there could be a chance for people to say ‘I can hand back my car because you told me the wrong number’.”

A statement via Volkswagen says the company has identified 430,000 VW, Audi, Skoda along with also Seat designs via the 2016 style year which are affected by CO2 irregularities, which form part of the 800,000 total revealed last week.

Customers affected by the CO2 irregularities can expect to receive an official letter via VW from the coming weeks.

VW to offer cash incentives

Earlier in which month, the idea emerged in which Volkswagen would likely offer cash incentives of up to £1500 to existing UK customers as the idea tries to avert the potential sales affect caused by the emissions scandal.

Dealer correspondence leaked to Autocar shows in which in response to concerns via VW’s British sales network, the company is usually going to top up any discounts offered to existing customers trading in a VW of any age having a further cash incentive – £400 on the Up city car, rising to £1000 on the Golf along with also Passat, along with also £1500 on the Touareg along with also Sharan.

The VW advice tells dealers, “in which Insentif is usually in addition to current tactical along with also does not impact your ability to determine the selling cost of the vehicle.” the idea adds in which the offer will last until the end of January 2016. different vehicles eligible for a £1000 incentive include Golf SV, Cabriolet along with also Estate, Beetle along with also Beetle Cabriolet, Scirocco, Jetta, Touran, Tiguan, CC along with also all electric vehicles.

VW’s British sales dipped slightly in October – along with those of several of its rivals, as the official figures dropped for initially in 43 months. However, market analysts suggest in which a large number of potential buyers are delaying their purchase – along with also VW’s loyalty Insentif is usually clearly designed to negate in which issue. the idea mirrors a scheme introduced from the United States, where existing customers can get up to $1500 off selected designs.

A VW UK spokesman said, “Any supplier received a scheme is usually designed to react to trends from the market, along with also you could say in which does the same. We think in which is usually an attractive offer for existing owners.”

German emissions investigators target 23 different manufacturers

German automotive industry regulator Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt (KBA) has announced the idea is usually conducting independent emissions tests on cars along with also vans made by 23 different marques.

In a statement, the KBA said the tests were being conducted as a result of the Volkswagen emissions scandal, however also suggested in which accusations of cheating elsewhere from the auto industry had been made. the idea cited “verified indications via third parties regarding unusual pollutants emissions“.

“Since the end of September, KBA has been investigating whether further manipulation of emissions, of nitrogen oxides in particular, is usually taking place from the market,” said the statement.

the idea added in which the idea had already tested two-thirds of the vehicles named, comparing laboratory test results with real-world figures, however did not give any clues as to the results.

All of the KBA’s tests are believed to be focused on diesel engines.

Alfa Romeo: Alfa Romeo GuiliettaAudi: Audi A6, Audi A3BMW: BMW 3 Series, BMW 5 SeriesChevrolet: Chevrolet CruzeDacia: SD engineFiat: Fiat Panda, Fiat DucatoFord: Ford Focus, Ford C-MaxHonda: Honda HR-VHyundai: Hyundai iX35, Hyundai i20Land Rover: Range Rover EvoqueJeep: Jeep CherokeeMazda: Mazda 6Mercedes: Mercedes C-Class, Mercedes CLS, Mercedes Sprinter, Mercedes V-ClassMini: Mini CooperMitsubishi: Mitsubishi ASXNissan: Nissan NavaraPeugeot: Peugeot 308Porsche: Porsche MacanRenault: Renault KadjarSmart: Smart FortwoToyota: Toyota AurisVauxhall: Vauxhall Astra, Vauxhall Insignia, Vauxhall ZafiraVolvo: Volvo V60VW: VW Golf, VW Beetle, VW Passat, VW Touran, VW Touareg, VW Golf Sportsvan, VW Polo, VW Crafter, VW Amarok

VW Group admits 800,000 cars may have false CO2 ratings; Porsche along with also petrol engines implicated

In early November, the Volkswagen Group was plunged into further crisis after admitting in which up to 800,000 petrol along with also diesel-powered cars had their CO2 along with also mpg ratings wrongly certified.

In a statement, VW revealed: “Under the ongoing review of all processes along with also workflows in connection with diesel engines the idea was established in which the CO2 levels along with also so the fuel consumption figures for some designs were set too low during the CO2 certification process. The majority of the vehicles concerned have diesel engines.”

the idea also pledged to “immediately start a dialogue with the responsible type approval agencies regarding the consequences of these findings”. The statement also described the situation as a “not yet fully explained issue”.

A VW spokesman confirmed in which the latest scandal affects AudiSeatSkoda along with also VW cars with what are described as “smaller” engines. Reports suggest in which cars powered by the 1.4-litre four-cylinder petrol engine with Cylinder On Demand technology are affected. Further reports suggest in which VW BlueMotion diesel designs with three along with also four-cylinder diesel engines are also affected.

The company said the idea has set aside two billion euros (£1.4bn) to cover the cost of in which latest revelation, although the idea cautioned in which the idea would likely need to consult officials before fully understanding the legal along with also econimic implications of the discovery. the idea has not said whether the idea will compensate owners of affected cars.

from the statement, Matthias Müller, CEO of Volkswagen, said: “via the very start I have pushed hard for the relentless along with also comprehensive clarification of events. We will stop at nothing along with also nobody. in which is usually a painful process, however the idea is usually our only alternative. For us, the only thing in which counts is usually the truth. in which is usually the basis for the fundamental realignment in which Volkswagen needs. The Board of Management of Volkswagen AG deeply regrets in which situation along with also wishes to underscore its determination to systematically continue along the present path of clarification along with also transparency.”

The VW statement also stressed in which the safety of the vehicles affected is usually in no way compromised.

Meanwhile, the Supervisory Board of the VW Group issues a separate statement expressing alarm at the latest discovery. the idea said: “The Supervisory Board is usually deeply concerned by the discovery of irregularities found when determining CO2 levels for the type approval of Volkswagen Group vehicles. The Supervisory Board along with also the special committee set up for the purpose of clarification will meet from the very near future to consult on further measures along with also consequences. The Supervisory Board will continue to ensure swift along with also meticulous clarification. In in which regard, the latest findings must be an incentive for the Supervisory Board along with also the Board of Management to do their utmost to resolve such irregularities along with also rebuild trust.”

VW EA288 engine given the all-clear

Following a previous rumour of more widespread cheating, Volkswagen was forced to issue a statement saying in which its EA288 engine does not contain the ‘defeat device’ software in which has plunged the company into crisis.

German news agency DPA had reported in which early EU5-compliant versions of the EA288 motor – a unit derived via the EA189 design in which’s been at the heart of the emissions scandal – were under scrutiny by VW engineers as they tried to establish the full extent of the problem.

VW itself issued a statement confirming in which the idea was examining the engines – however currently the idea says in which process has been completed along with also in which “no software constituting an improper defeat device as defined in law is usually installed in vehicles with EA288 engines”.

The conclusion is usually an important one for the troubled German supplier received a because the idea could have faced millions of further recalls if the EA288 engines – sold in 1.6- along with also 2.0-litre versions across the VW Group’s range of brands – had been found to contain the code in which sparked off the emissions scandal.

VW’s statement added, “brand new vehicles of the Volkswagen Group offered within the European Union with those engines comply with legal requirements along with also environmental standards.”

UK recall ‘won’t be mandatory’

The UK’s Department for Transport has confirmed in which the idea won’t be issuing a mandatory recall for cars affected by Volkswagen’s emissions scandal in in which country.

Speaking to Autocar, a DfT spokesman confirmed in which the UK won’t follow the example set by the German authorities in issuing a mandatory recall for affected cars. Volkswagen has already began a voluntary recall program for cars in in which country, however the DfT has made clear in which “in which is usually VW’s position along with also VW’s problem.”

“We will continue to put pressure on VW to make sure in which happens as quickly as possible,” said the spokesman “to ensure people from the UK can have these problems fixed.

“The government has been putting pressure on VW to address these issues quickly. The government expects VW to set up the next steps on how they are going to correct in which problem along with also support owners from the UK. from the past few weeks the Transport Secretary has spoken to the German Transport Minister about the actions of VW, along with also has been reassured in which the German authorities are working closely with VW.”

In Germany, the federal transport authority, the KBA, is usually forcing Volkswagen to recall the 2.4 million cars from the country which have its ‘defeat device’ software installed.

Criminal enquiry targets “fewer than 10 staff”

Criminal prosecutors in German who are investigating the dieselgate scandal have identified fewer than 10 suspects, despite earlier rumours in which up to 30 staff could be implicated. Klaus Ziehe, spokesman for the prosecutors from the German city of Brunswick, told news agency AFP in which investigators suspect “more than two however a lot fewer than 10 people”. 

VW’s UK boss faces MPs

Last month, Volkswagen UK boss Paul Willis admitted in which his company’s so-called ‘defeat device’ did affect the results of emissions tests in Europe.

Previously, the German supplier received a has only confirmed in which the software-based emissions cheat was present on some vehicles in Europe – along with also had not outlined whether the defeat device was active during the NEDC emissions test used across the EU.

However, when asked during a 45-minute grilling via MPs on the transport select committee if the defeat device had been used during type approval testing for the UK, Willis admitted, “the idea seems via what I understand – along with also I’m not an engineer – in which the system of gas regulation from the engine influenced the NOx output in cars in which we sell from the UK. These cars are type approved across all of Europe, of course, along with also they’re type approved in Germany, with separate people overlooking the idea.

“We mishandled the situation in so far as our engines behaved differently within the testing regime to the real world. in which’s why we need to fix the cars, in which’s why we need to get the customers in, along with also in which’s why we need to put the cars right. We mishandled the situation, without a shadow of a doubt.

“the idea seems in which from the test regime the engine behaved differently to the real-world situation via software. The software affected the flow of gas to the engine which reduced the NOx.”

Willis said VW reacted “as quickly as possible”

The session at the House of Commons was the first opportunity for the transport select committee – a cross-party Centeng made up of 11 MPs – to question VW representatives or the auto industry on the dieselgate scandal.

Willis came under particular pressure on the amount of time taken by VW UK to remove affected vehicles – around 4000 cars still on the market – via sale. He argued in which the firm had acted as quickly as possible, saying, “On 22nd September we were made aware by VW headquarters in Wolfsburg in which there was a potential problem with diesel engines. On 28th September we were getting more details along with also I phoned Mr McLoughlin [Patrick McLoughin, the Transport Secretary] to say to him in which as soon as I knew which vehicles were affected, I would likely voluntarily stop selling those cars. in which phone call took place at 3pm on 28th September.

“On 30th September, at 9am from the morning, I received the VIN numbers via the various different factories. along with also in which is usually the point: there were eight days between when we first knew the idea affected Europe along with also when I stopped selling cars. along with also the reason for in which is usually the complexity of the number of cars involved. There are 60 different designs, all 5 different brands, three different engines along with also two different transmissions.

“I found the VIN numbers out precisely at 9am, along with also at 1.30pm, once I had clarified the idea with the computer systems, I stopped selling those cars voluntarily. the idea took four hours along with also 30 minutes via the time I knew the affected cars until I took action – four hours along with also 30 minutes.”

Existing test comes under fire via MPs

Both Willis along with also the chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers along with also Traders, Mike Hawes, were asked if the current emissions testing procedure was fit for purpose. Hawes admitted in which the difference between real-world figures along with also those provided by the NEDC could be “up to 30%”. “These figures are meant for a comparison process along with also always contain a disclaimer about the real world along with also in which is usually for some very sensible comparitive reasons,” he said.

“The test cycle dates back to the early 1980s along with also the industry recognises the idea isn’t fit for purpose,” he added. “When you put a vehicle on the test cycle, for instance, all of the electronic devices in which you would likely turn on from the real world – air-conditioning, heating, sat-nav, Bluetooth – all of in which has to be switched off, by law, because when the regulation was created in which sort of technology wasn’t available. Then there’s the issue of real-world driving conditions – congestion, temperature, load, gradient – all huge along with also all ruled out by the test cycle to get a repeatable cycle.”

Hawes said he believes a more realistic testing cycle will be introduced on a compulsory basis via the beginning of 2017.

Willis also criticised the current testing procedure. He said: “If we look at the test regime on emissions, we know the idea is usually old-fashioned along with also not fit for purpose. We need completely independent tests in which look at all sorts of detail, like Euro NCAP, which uses real-world testing. We need to look at in which.”

“We have a duty to the public to reassure them [customers] in which our cars are safe. There is usually no relation to safety with in which issue however we do need to regain trust along with also we will do in which with transparency.”

Willis also apologised to VW customers from the UK saying: “Volkswagen has significantly let down its customers along with also the wider public. We recognise we’ve fallen short of the standards expected along with also we will take all the necessary steps to regain trust.”

VW UK could pay back missing tax to government

Willis has promised in which the VW Group will speak to Her Majesty’s Revenue & Customs to discuss any tax payments on vehicles in which may need to be made the wake of the dieselgate scandal. When asked if the firm had measures in place to compensate the Treasury for any revenues missed because of the defeat devices, Willis said, “I’m not sure there’s any clear evidence in which the CO2 emissions on these cars are different from the real world. however we can have a conversation downstream. The British taxpayer should not be out of pocket along with also if necessary, we will have a meeting with HMRC.”

The scale of VW’s global problem

In total, VW has said in which just under 11 million vehicles worldwide possess the software ‘defeat device’ in which was exposed in American emissions tests last month. While two-thirds are thought to be fixable having a software upgrade, the idea’s believed in which a total of 3.6 million affected VW, Audi, Skoda along with also Seat designs – those featuring the 1.6-litre style of the EA189 turbodiesel engine – will require hardware modifications to correct the issue. US designs may require the addition of a urea tank, whereas European editions of the 1.6 are likely to need brand new fuel injectors.

VW’s brand new CEO Matthias Müller has pledged in which all affected cars will be fixed by the end of next year. He added: “Our most important task will be to regain lost confidence with our customers, partners, investors along with also the general public. The first step in in which direction will be a fast along with also relentless examination along with also explanation. Only when everything comes to the table, only when things are completely explained, only then will people trust us again.

“Believe me, I too am impatient. however in in which situation, in which we are dealing with four brands along with also many designs, care is usually more important than speed.

“The technical solutions to the problems are in sight. By contrast, the business along with also financial consequences are not yet foreseeable.”

VW, Audi, Skoda along with also Seat launch websites for owners to check if they are affected

Volkswagen, Audi, Skoda along with also Seat have launched websites in which allow owners to check if their car is usually affected by the emissions scandal.   

The VW site collapsed soon after launch as a result of the amount of traffic trying to access the idea, however has since been functioning normally. Sites via AudiSkoda along with also Seat are all running without problem.

Government won’t hike tax bills

The Government has confirmed in which UK taxpayers will not be hit by a higher tax bill if the idea turns out in which their cars were found to have cheated tests.

Transport secretary Patrick McLoughlin said: “The government expects VW to support owners of these vehicles already purchased from the UK along with also we are playing our part by ensuring no one will end up with higher tax costs as a result of in which scandal.”

He also confirmed in which the Department for Transport has pushed for more clarity on the matter along with also in which the next round of tests will look at whether the software “is usually being used elsewhere”.

“Neither cars, nor the testing facilities will be provided by the vehicle industry themselves”. VW has offered to pay just for in which testing if the government requests the idea does so.

VW’s remaining EU5 stock taken off sale from the UK

Following the scandal, Volkswagen Group UK took 4000 cars fitted with the EA189 engine off sale, pending investigations into how the idea will remove the illegal software in which cheated US emissions tests while still ensuring the cars comply with all emissions regulations.

The move covered vehicles via Audi, Seat, Skoda, Volkswagen, along with also the cars along with also commercial vehicles affected represent around 3% of the Group’s total UK stock. They are required to be put back on sale once the Group’s modifications have been put in place.

A spokesman stressed in which the decision to withdraw the cars via sale was a voluntary measure, rather than a regulatory one. The vehicles remained on sale beyond the September 1 deadline for Euro 6 emissions regulations to come in to effect because legislation allows manufactures to clear stock of Euro 5 engined vehicles. VW has previously confirmed all of its cars fitted with the latest, Euro 6-classified engines are fully legal.

the idea has also been announced in which anyone with an order placed for an affected car will be given the choice of withdrawing via the sale without penalty, taking delivery of the auto after the modifications have been fitted or taking delivery of the auto as soon as the idea is usually available along with also then having the required modifications retro-fitted.

More than 1.1m UK cars affected

The full number of cars to be recalled from the UK under VW’s voluntary scheme is usually 1,189,906, along with also in which is usually spread across all 5 different brands from the VW Group. Volkswagen accounts for the majority, with 508,276 cars affected, while Audi has to recall 393,450 designs. Skoda also incorporates a notable number affected, with 131,569. Seat along with also Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles are also involved, with 76,773 along with also 79,838 vehicles being recalled respectively.

In a statement, the firm said: “Customers with these vehicles will be kept informed over the coming weeks along with also months. All of the Group brands affected will set up national websites to update customers on developments.”

the idea is usually not yet known whether the owners of affected cars will be offered compensation. Various lobbying groups are claiming in which the potential loss of value to the cars should be reimbursed by Volkswagen.

A spokesman had previously confirmed in which VW will not rush a technical solution, preferring to focus on getting the idea right. He said: “We don’t want to be fast – we want to be certain. Over the next days along with also weeks we will write to all affected customers along with also we will put in place free-of-charge fixes for all affected customers.”

However, the spokesman was unable to confirm whether the revisions would likely require the vehicles to be recertified for their emissions along with also economy figures.

The official VW statement reads: “An internal evaluation on Friday established in which a service procedure is usually required for some all 5 million vehicles via the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand out of a total eleven million Group vehicles worldwide. These vehicles via certain designs along with also style years (such as the sixth generation Volkswagen Golf, the seventh generation Volkswagen Passat or the first generation Volkswagen Tiguan) are fitted with Type EA 189 diesel engines.”

Why did VW cheat?

A senior source within the German car industry has shed light on the most significant outstanding question of the VW emissions scandal, namely why?

If the offending cars have all the emissions equipment on board to make the auto compliant with the regulations, why take such an enormous risk engineering from the ‘defeat device’ to bypass in which equipment?

“I expect the idea was pressure on the engineers in which made them do the idea,” said the source. “Remember in which system was designed some time ago when emissions controls were not as sophisticated as they are currently, along with also the pressure to pass the tests would likely have been immense.

“along with also I imagine the reason they installed the defeat device is usually in which without the idea there would likely have serious consequences not from the laboratory however on the road, either with the auto’s performance, driveability, fuel consumption or some combination of the three.”

He went on to confirm in which technology has since evolved sufficiently for there to be no need for such devices today.

So why, then, did VW not simply stop using the defeat device when the idea was no longer needed? “There are two possible reasons. First the idea would likely likely have been integrated within the entire electronic architecture of the auto along with also not easy to remove, second to remove the idea those responsible for its installation would likely have first to have flagged up the fact in which they’d put the idea there, which they’d probably not be too keen to do…”

The source said he believed the defeat device was likely to be present also on VW products sold in Europe with the EA189 engine [since confirmed by a German minister] however almost certainly not active which he said, was “nothing like as bad as having active, however still illegal”.

He said also he believed in which VW alone was using such a device along with also in which all different German car manufacturers had no equivalent systems on the cars they sold today.

The one remaining question is usually who signed off the defeat device. Former VW boss Martin Winterkorn has denied knowledge of the idea along with also his resignation, while inevitable, was no kind of admission of guilt.

Whoever was responsible, the idea seems likely in which more heads will have to roll before the true picture emerges.

11m Audis, Seats, Skodas along with also VWs affected globally

While the VW Group has said in which 11 million vehicles worldwide are affected by the scandal, only 5m are via Volkswagen brand itself. Audi has revealed in which 2.1 million vehicles via its brand are affected worldwide, with 1.42 million of those being in Western Europe. Skoda has also revealed in which 1.2 million of its cars worldwide are affected by the scandal. Seat has said in which 700,000 of its vehicles are affected globally. 

A VW Group statement read: “As previously announced, all brand new Volkswagen Passenger Car brand vehicles in which fulfill the EU6 norm valid throughout Europe are not affected. in which therefore also includes the current Golf, Passat along with also Touran designs.”

The figures also include 1.8 million light commercial vehicles.

SMMT: just because VW cheated, the idea doesn’t mean the whole industry is usually cheating

Speaking at a conference on air quality, chief executive of the Society of Motor Manufacturers along with also Traders (SMMT) Mike Hawes said: “Consumers are right to be concerned following the events of the past ten days. however we must remember, the actions of one company do not mean collusion. Implicating different brands or companies would likely be unfair along with also wrong.

“the idea would likely be wrong to penalise all diesels. The latest diesel vehicles are the cleanest ever – effectively reducing nitrogen oxide levels by 92% compared with earlier generations. They make a significant contribution to climate change targets, an environmental challenge which cannot be ignored.

“We recognise the current regulations for testing are out of date. We want, for consumers along with also our own industry’s integrity, a brand new emissions test in which embraces brand new technologies, along with also which is usually more representative of on the road conditions.”

VW’s global meltdown

There have been calls for governmental probes in to VW’s actions via around the entire world since the firm admitted cheating from the US emissions tests, including in Canada, Germany, Italy, South Korea, UK along with also the USA. The UK government has already announced the idea will launch an inquiry into the scandal.

VW has put aside a fund of €6.5bn (approximately £4.7bn) to cover the costs of dealing with the issue, along with also says the idea will adjust its financial targets for 2015 as a result. The matter came to light when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with also the California Air Resources Board (CARB) revealed in which while testing 2.0-litre, four-cylinder diesel cars of the Volkswagen Group they detected electronic manipulations in which violate American environmental standards.

Reports have since surfaced in which Volkswagen was warned about the legality of its software as far back as 2007.

According to the EPA, in which means in which the cars under investigation could be emitting up to 40 times the national standard for nitrogen oxide (NOx), which is usually linked to asthma along with also lung illnesses. The cars affected are 2009-2014 Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, Audi A3s, along with also VW Passats built via 2014-15.

The issue will be investigated by the US Congress’s Oversight along with also Investigations Subcommittee.

“Strong emissions standards are in place for the benefit of public health,” said House Energy along with also Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton along with also Oversight along with also Investigations Subcommittee Chairman Tim Murphy in a joint statement.

“Manufacturers throughout the United States, along with also across the entire world, have developed leading technologies to reduce airborne emissions within the limits set by EPA along with also state environmental agencies. However, reported EPA allegations in which certain Volkswagen designs contained software to defeat auto emissions tests raise serious questions,” they said.

“We will follow the facts. We are also concerned in which auto consumers may have been deceived – in which what they were purchasing did not come as advertised. The American people deserve answers along with also assurances in which in which will not happen again. We intend to get those answers.”

A date for the US Congress hearing has yet to be set. Since the scandal broke the VW Group share cost has fallen by more than 50% via its 2015 high.

VW emissions scandal: how the idea unfolded

The Volkswagen emissions scandal is usually currently headline news, however the story has its roots in May 2014, when a study found higher-than-clamed emissions coming via two Volkswagen vehicles. Here’s our timeline of how the story unfolded.

May 2014 The West Virginia University’s (WVU) Centre for Alternative Fuels, Engines along with also Emissions publishes results of a study commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation in which found significantly higher-than-claimed in-use emissions via two diesel cars, a 2012 Jetta along with also a 2013 Passat. A BMW X5 also tested passed the tests. 

WVU alerts California Air Resources Board (CARB) along with also the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the issue.

Summer 2014 Over the course of the year following the publication of the WVU study, VW continues to assert to CARB along with also the EPA in which the increased emissions via these vehicles could be attributed to various technical issues along with also unexpected in-use conditions.

December 2014 VW issues a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 vehicles to address the emissions issue.

6 May 2015 CARB, in coordination with the EPA, conducts follow-up testing of these vehicles both from the laboratory along with also during normal road operation to confirm the efficacy of VW’s recall. Testing shows the recall has had only a limited benefit.

None of the potential technical issues suggested by VW can explain the higher test results consistently confirmed during further testing by CARB.

Summer 2015 CARB along with also the EPA make the idea clear in which they will not approve certificates of conformity – necessary for vehicles to be sold from the USA – for VW’s 2016 style year diesel vehicles until the supplier received a car adequately explain the anomalous emissions along with also ensure the agencies in which the 2016 style year vehicles would likely not have similar issues.

3 September 2015 During a meeting VW admits the idea has designed along with also installed a defeat device in these vehicles from the form of a sophisticated software algorithm in which detects when a vehicle is usually undergoing emissions testing.

18 September 2015 CARB along with also the EPA make their findings public, stating in which Volkswagen has violated two sections of the Clean Air Act, firstly by selling or offering for sale vehicles in which did not comply with their certificates of conformity, along with also second by manufacturing along with also installing into these vehicles an electronic control module capable of switching its calibration to beat the emissions tests.

Read more on the Volkswagen emissions scandal:

Six things the firm could cut

Bugatti under threat as boss warns of ‘painful’ cuts

Blog – navel gazing at Volkswagen

Blog – Keeping up with pollution laws is usually not always easy for car makers

Blog – How Volkswagen can survive its emissions scandal

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