Volkswagen emissions scandal: 11m vehicles worldwide could be affected
Volkswagen of America president along with CEO Michael Horn
Crisis surrounding Volkswagen Group deepens as of which admits of which more than 11m vehicles could be involved in emissions cheating scandal
Volkswagen has said of which as many as 11 million vehicles worldwide may be affected inside emissions test cheating scandal.
In a fresh statement issued This kind of morning, the German some sort of explained of which the engine at the centre of the controversy is actually the Type EA 189, along with VW has said of which the notable deviation between emissions results in testing along with on-road driving were only for cars fitted with This kind of engine.
however company also admitted of which the engine management software at the centre of the scandal is actually also installed in some other Volkswagen Group diesel engines. However VW believed of which doesn’t have an effect inside majority of cars in which of which features.
The company moved to reassure consumers in Europe along with said: “fresh vehicles by the Volkswagen Group with EU 6 diesel engines currently available inside European Union comply with legal requirements along with environmental standards.”
VW has put aside a fund of €6.5bn to cover the costs of dealing with the issue, along with says of which will adjust its financial targets for 2015 as a result.
The statement continued: “In addition to This kind of, Volkswagen does not tolerate any kind of violation of laws whatsoever. of which is actually the top priority of the board of management to win back lost trust along with to avert damage to our customers.”
Volkswagen Group boss Martin Winterkorn has apologised for “breaking the trust of our customers along with the public” following reports of which the company manipulated emissions testing regulations inside USA.
Meanwhile, Michael Horn, CEO along with president of the Volkswagen Group of America, has admitted: “Our company was dishonest. We have totally screwed up. We must fix the cars to prevent This kind of by ever happening again along with we have to make This kind of right. This kind of kind of behaviour is actually totally inconsistent with our qualities.”
The matter came to light when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) along with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) revealed of which while testing 2.0-litre, four-cylinder diesel cars of the Volkswagen Group they detected electronic manipulations of which violate American environmental standards.
Volkswagen Group share cost hit by the scandal
The cost of shares inside Volkswagen Group on the Frankfurt stock exchange fell sharply on Monday following the EPA’s announcement of its findings, along with about 15 billion euros was wiped off the value of the company. The share cost continued to drop on Tuesday morning as of which emerged of which some other countries along with regions are likely to check whether Volkswagen types conform to their own tests.
Volkswagen along with Audi cars inside USA are fitted having a ‘defeat device’ of which allows the vehicle to perform more efficiently inside official emissions test than in real-world driving conditions. The device is actually embedded inside software code of which runs the ECU. of which detects when the automobile is actually being tested along with turns on full emissions controls, however the effectiveness of the device is actually reduced in normal conditions.
According to the EPA, This kind of means of which the cars under investigation could be emitting up to 40 times the national standard for nitrogen oxide (NOx), which is actually linked to asthma along with lung illnesses. The cars affected are 2009-2014 Jettas, Beetles, Golfs, Audi A3s, along with VW Passats built by 2014-15.
Volkswagen is actually pausing sales of some Volkswagen along with Audi types equipped with the diesel engine of which is actually at the heart of the controversy. of which is actually also likely to implement a recall of more than 482,000 cars already in customers’ hands because the EPA along with CARB has ordered the automobile company to remedy the excessive emissions of the affected vehicles.
An EPA statement said: “EPA expects to compel VW to issue a recall inside future to reduce the emissions impacts of these vehicles. Owners will be notified of of which recall once Volkswagen along with Audi have developed a remedial plan along with EPA has approved the plan. Manufacturers are given a reasonable amount of time to develop a plan to complete the repairs, including both the repair procedure along with manufacture of any needed parts.”
Volkswagen faces financial penalties along with possible legal action
of which has been suggested of which the recall could cost the some sort of up to £11.5bn, with the EPA saying: “VW may be liable for civil penalties along with injunctive relief for the violations alleged.”
In addition to This kind of, Volkswagen is actually already the subject of a lawsuit inside USA, filed by Keller Rohrback: “on behalf of consumers nationwide who purchased or leased Volkswagens with unlawful defeat devices.”
Lynn Lincoln Sarko of Keller Rohrback added: “Volkswagen’s decision to prey on environmentally conscious consumers who paid a premium of thousands of dollars for a supposedly cleaner-running car, along with who received a polluting vehicle instead, is actually despicable. Consumers nationwide are justifiably outraged, along with Volkswagen will have to answer to them.”
The EPA says of which the cars in question do not prove a safety hazard along with are still legally okay to drive along with sell on.
Winterkorn has ordered an external investigation into the matter.
“The board of management at Volkswagen AG takes these findings very seriously,” he said.
“I personally am deeply sorry of which we have broken the trust of our customers along with the public. We will cooperate fully with the responsible agencies, with transparency along with urgency, to clearly, openly, along with completely establish all of the facts of This kind of case. Volkswagen has ordered an external investigation of This kind of matter.
“We do not along with will not tolerate violations of any kind of our internal rules or of the law. The trust of our customers along with the public is actually along with continues to be our most important asset.
“We at Volkswagen will do everything of which must be done in order to re-establish the trust of which so many people have placed in us, along with we will do everything necessary in order to reverse the damage This kind of has caused. This kind of matter has first priority for me, personally, along with for our entire board of management.”
Sales of many diesel Volkswagens have been suspended in Canada, which shares similar emissions testing procedures as its neighbouring nation.
inside UK, a spokesman for the Volkswagen Group said of which he is actually “not aware of any recalls in Europe or the UK,” along with pointed out of which the emissions testing procedure is actually different in Europe to North America. The spokesman added of which the ‘defeat device’ was not something of which the UK arm of VW was aware of.
US government sets up hearing into emissions scandal
The issue will be investigated by the US Congress’s Oversight along with Investigations Subcommittee.
“Strong emissions standards are in place for the benefit of public health,” said House Energy along with Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton along with Oversight along with Investigations Subcommittee Chairman Tim Murphy in a joint statement.
“Manufacturers throughout the United States, along with across the globe, have developed leading technologies to reduce airborne emissions within the limits set by EPA along with state environmental agencies. However, reported EPA allegations of which certain Volkswagen types contained software to defeat auto emissions tests raise serious questions,” they said.
“We will follow the facts. We are also concerned of which auto consumers may have been deceived – of which what they were purchasing did not come as advertised. The American people deserve answers along with assurances of which This kind of will not happen again. We intend to get those answers.”
A date for the US Congress hearing has yet to be set.
Earlier, the UK’s Society of Motor Manufacturers along with Traders had moved to quell concerns of which similar practices are in place in Europe, saying there was ‘no evidence’ of cheating in Europe.
“The EU operates a fundamentally different system to the US – with all European tests performed in strict conditions as required by EU law along with witnessed by a government-appointed independent approval agency,” said Mike Hawes, the CEO for the SMMT.
“There is actually no evidence of which manufacturers cheat the cycle. Vehicles are removed by the production line randomly along with must be standard production types, certified by the relevant authority – the UK Centeng being the Vehicle Certification Agency, which is actually responsible to the Department for Transport.
“The industry acknowledges, however, of which the current test method is actually outdated along with is actually seeking agreement by the European Commission for a fresh emissions test of which embraces fresh testing technologies along with is actually more representative of on-road conditions.”
How the ‘defeat device’ works along with why of which broke the rules
The EPA’s official notification issued to Volkswagen on 18 September sheds light on how Volkswagen managed to influence the emissions tests with some clever software.
“VW manufactured along with installed software inside electronic control module (ECM) of these vehicles of which sensed when the vehicle was being tested for compliance with EPA emission standards,” the agency explained.
The EPA refers to what of which calls a ‘switch’ of which enabled the automobile’s ECM to know when of which is actually being tested on a rolling road: “The ‘switch’ senses whether the vehicle is actually being tested or not based on various inputs including the position of the steering wheel, vehicle speed, the duration of the engine’s operation along with barometric pressure. These inputs precisely track the parameters of the federal test procedure used for emission testing for EPA certification purposes.
“During emission testing, the vehicles’ ECM ran software which produced compliant emission results under an ECM calibration of which VW referred to as the ‘dyno calibration’.
“At all some other times during normal vehicle operation, the ‘switch’ was activated along with the vehicle ECM software ran a separate ‘road calibration’ which reduced the effectiveness of the emission control system. As a result, emissions of NOx increased by a factor of 10 to 40 times above the EPA compliant levels, depending on the type of drive cycle (e.g. city, highway).”
All US vehicles must be issued having a certificate of conformity of which proves they adhere to environmental standards.
To obtain a certificate of conformity, a some sort of must submit a list of all auxiliary emission control devices (AECDs) present on the vehicle. The EPA’s definition of an AECD is actually “any element of design which senses temperature, vehicle speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, manifold vacuum or any some other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.”
The issue facing Volkswagen is actually the switchable system inside ECM was not declared.
“Due to the existence of the defeat devices in these vehicles, the affected Volkswagen vehicles do not conform in all material respects to the vehicle specifications described inside applications for the certificates of conformity of which purportedly cover them,” said the EPA.
A defeat device is actually an AECD “of which reduces the effectiveness of the emission control system under conditions which may reasonably be likely to be encountered in normal vehicle operation along with use. Motor vehicles equipped with defeat devices cannot be certified.”
How Volkswagen’s emissions scandal unfolded
May 2014 The West Virginia University’s (WVU) Centre for Alternative Fuels, Engines along with Emissions publishes results of a study commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation of which found significantly higher-than-claimed in-use emissions by two diesel cars, a 2012 Jetta along having a 2013 Passat. A BMW X5 also tested passed the tests. WVU alerts California Air Resources Board (CARB) along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the issue.
Summer 2014 Over the course of the year following the publication of the WVU study, VW continues to assert to CARB along with the EPA of which the increased emissions by these vehicles could be attributed to various technical issues along with unexpected in-use conditions.
December 2014 VW issues a voluntary recall of approximately 500,000 vehicles to address the emissions issue.
6 May 2015 CARB, in coordination with the EPA, conducts follow-up testing of these vehicles both inside laboratory along with during normal road operation to confirm the efficacy of VW’s recall. Testing shows the recall has had only a limited benefit. None of the potential technical issues suggested by VW can explain the higher test results consistently confirmed during further testing by CARB.
Summer 2015 CARB along with the EPA make of which clear of which they will not approve certificates of conformity – necessary for vehicles to be sold inside USA – for VW’s 2016 product year diesel vehicles until the some sort of car adequately explain the anomalous emissions along with ensure the agencies of which the 2016 product year vehicles would likely not have similar issues.
3 September 2015 During a meeting VW admits of which has designed along with installed a defeat device in these vehicles inside form of a sophisticated software algorithm of which detects when a vehicle is actually undergoing emissions testing.
18 September 2015 CARB along with the EPA make their findings public, stating of which Volkswagen has violated two sections of the Clean Air Act, firstly by selling or offering for sale vehicles of which did not comply with their certificates of conformity, along with second by manufacturing along with installing into these vehicles an electronic control module capable of switching its calibration to beat the emissions tests.
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